Serving Northwest Arkansas with Web Development, Computer Repair, and SO/HO Networking.

computer diagnostic and repair, web development, computer networking, data recovery, data back up, network security, computer security, computer trouble shooting, search engine optimization, digital photography, graphic design, custom computers Computer repair needs to be done. Your website is important. Web development is fun. Fast computer fix! Nerds and geeks to develop your website. Networking computers for home and small office everyday. The stars use Panther Data Tech LLC. Rogers AR has a nice trail system, computer mapping helped design it. Fayetteville AR also has a great trial system, the planners needed a computer network to get the job done. They also needed servers. Virtual private servers would have been cost effective for them! Virtual private networking would let them work from home or telecommute. Your Dell break down? We can fix your Gateway! Your Toshiba laptop unhappy? Let use fix your machine right up. DVD ROM need replacing? We have Blue Ray burners! CD burners are obsolete, get a DVD or Blue Ray burner. Gigabit networking is sweet! Yahoo, Google, Bing, Ask, search engines are useful tools for finding what you need. Small business must work smarter, not harder. Family homes want entertainment networks for streaming videos. Bit torrents are a good way to get Linux distros. Ubuntu is very smooth and is a good business solution. Windows 7 plays a lot of games, but not all. Windows Vista plays a lot of games too. Windows XP is still my favorite. Knoppix is a nice piece of operating system software. Identity of your corporation, we consider that when we help design your online presence. Internet resourcing is a good way to find articles about your interests. Wikipedia is great! Circuit boards are pretty cool looking. Hard drives crash, not a good thing. Let Panther Data Tech recover your lost data. If one is in need of a gaming machine, a server or an office computer "box", Panther can build the best. Liquid cooling, top of the line processors. Intel I7, AMD Phenom, these are excellent processors, for instance. We use a chassis, not just a case. BFG tech went out of business, hard to believe. EVGA is a stellar brand of video card. Graphic design, logo creation, digital photography, we do this and more. Search engine optimization is great for your corporate presence, your image and your communications footprint. Cisco, Netgear and Linksys have good routers. Switches using VLANS are efficient. Firewalls help keep your company safe. Small businesses love the work Panther does. Encryption and privacy are urgent issues for every company, for every store. Viruses got you down? Let us clean your PC! We trouble shoot your PC, your network, your server. Mazda has a nice website. Custom computers are faster and last longer. Hard drive failure is bad. Data recovery is good. Diagnostics help determine the issues with your PC. IBM Clone, that is a PC, personal computer. Personal computing is spiffy stuff! Nifty sites, gigantic websites, E commerce, we do that, we do it very well. Mother boards and CPUs are important. RAM, random access memory should pass all tests, we test it all. You like I Phones. Blackberrys are also useful. Androids are functional. Panther Data Tech specializes in quality Computer Repair. Repair of your PC is groovy. The best place to find your business is via your website. Are you in Yahoo local? Google local, or maps, or whatever it is called... Robots can do a few neat things. Protect your privacy with a network of security and speed. Flawless servers serving up great apple pies. Microsoft is a really big company. Fans help keep your computer cool. Cat 6 carries a Gigabit signal over the twisted pair copper wires. Cables are faster then wireless networking. Network cards get you online. WI FI is convenient. Northwest Arkansas is a nice place. Computer repair in Northwest Arkansas, we do. NWA computer repair, Panther Data Tech LLC is your source. NWA web development, we got it. SO/HO networking solutions at Panther Tech. Panther Data Tech LLC provides excellent I.T. support services for your small business or home. Stellar computer repair, data recovery and custom computers, Panther Data Tech is here for you. We also provide web development, web programming and SEO services, as well as database programming and database management. Networking and Network security, SO/HO, is an area we specialize in. The following is from Wikipedia: A personal computer (PC) is any general-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and original sales price make it useful for individuals, and which is intended to be operated directly by an end user with no intervening computer operator. This is in contrast to the batch processing or time-sharing models which allowed large expensive mainframe systems to be used by many people, usually at the same time, or large data processing systems which required a full-time staff to operate efficiently. It is also in contrast with the more recent trend of controlling software availability through an intervening third party such as the Apple App Store. A personal computer may be a desktop computer, a laptop, a tablet PC, or a handheld PC (also called a palmtop). The most common microprocessors in personal computers are x86-compatible CPUs. Software applications for personal computers include word processing, spreadsheets, databases, Web browsers and e-mail clients, games, and myriad personal productivity and special-purpose software applications. Modern personal computers often have connections to the Internet, allowing access to the World Wide Web and a wide range of other resources. A PC may be used at home or in an office. Personal computers may be connected to a local area network (LAN), either by a cable or a wireless connection. While early PC owners usually had to write their own programs to do anything useful with the machines, today's users have access to a wide range of commercial and non-commercial software, which is provided in ready-to-run or ready-to-compile form. Since the 1980s, Microsoft and Intel have dominated much of the personal computer market, first with MS-DOS and then with the Wintel platform. Web design is a broad term used to encompass the way that content (usually hypertext or hypermedia) that are delivered to an end-user through the World Wide Web, using a Web browser or other Web-enabled software is displayed. The intent of web design is to create a website—a collection of online content including documents and applications that reside on a Web server/servers. The website may include text, images, sounds and other content, and may be interactive. Web design involves the structure of the website including the information architecture (navigation schemes and naming conventions), the layout or the pages (wireframes or page schematics are created to show consistent placement of items including functional features), and the conceptual design with branding. All websites should begin with a clear strategy so that it is apparent what they are trying to achieve. The strategy then enables the design to fullfill defined goals. Such elements as text, forms, images (GIFs, JPEGs, Portable Network Graphics) and video can be placed on the page using HTML/XHTML/XML tags. Older browsers may require Plug-ins such as Adobe Flash, QuickTime, Java run-time environment, etc. to display some media, which are embedded into web page by using HTML/XHTML tags. Improvements in browsers' compliance with W3C standards prompted a widespread acceptance and usage of XHTML/XML in conjunction with Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) to position and manipulate web page elements and objects. Typically Web pages are classified as static or dynamic: * Static pages don’t change content and layout with every request unless a human (web master/programmer) manually updates the page. A simple HTML page is an example of static content. * Dynamic pages adapt their content and/or appearance depending on end-user’s input/interaction or changes in the computing environment (user, time, database modifications, etc.) Content can be changed on the client side (end-user's computer) by using client-side scripting languages (JavaScript, JScript, Actionscript, etc.) to alter DOM elements (DHTML). Dynamic content is often compiled on the server utilizing server-side scripting languages (Perl, PHP, ASP, JSP, ColdFusion, etc.). Both approaches are usually used in complex applications. With growing specialization in the information technology field there is a strong tendency to distinguish between web design and Web development. Web design is a kind of graphic design intended for the development and styling of objects of the Internet's information environment to provide them with high-end consumer features and aesthetic qualities. This definition separates Web design from web programming, emphasizing the functional features of a web site, as well as positioning web design as a kind of graphic design.[1] The process of designing web pages, web sites, web applications or multimedia for the Web may utilize multiple disciplines, such as animation, authoring, communication design, corporate identity, graphic design, human-computer interaction, information architecture, interaction design, marketing, photography, search engine optimization and typography. * Markup languages (such as HTML, XHTML and XML) * Style sheet languages (such as CSS and XSL) * Client-side scripting (such as JavaScript) * Server-side scripting (such as PHP and ASP) * Database technologies (such as MySQL and PostgreSQL) * Multimedia technologies (such as Flash and Silverlight) Web pages and websites can be static pages, or can be programmed to be dynamic pages that automatically adapt content or visual appearance depending on a variety of factors, such as input from the end-user, input from the Webmaster or changes in the computing environment (such as the site's associated database having been modified). To be accessible, Web pages and sites must conform to certain accessibility principles. These accessibility principles are known as the WCAG when talking about content. These can be grouped into the following main areas. * Use semantic markup that provides a meaningful structure to the document (i.e. Web page) * Semantic markup also refers to semantically organizing the web page structure and publishing web services description accordingly so that they can be recognized by other web services on different web pages. Standards for semantic Web are set by IEEE * Use a valid markup language that conforms to a published DTD or Schema * Provide text equivalents for any non-text components (e.g. images, multimedia) * Use hyperlinks that make sense when read out of context. (e.g. avoid "Click Here") Website accessibility is also changing as it is impacted by Content Management Systems that allow changes to be made to webpages without the need of obtaining web-based programming language knowledge. It is very important that several different components of Web development and interaction can work together in order for the Web to be accessible to people with disabilities. These components include: * content - the information in a Web page or Web application, including: o natural information such as text, images, and sounds o code or markup that defines structure, presentation, etc. * Web browsers, media players, and other "user agents" * assistive technology, in some cases - screen readers, alternative keyboards, switches, scanning software, etc. * users' knowledge, experiences, and in some cases, adaptive strategies using the Web * developers - designers, coders, authors, etc., including developers with disabilities and users who contribute content * authoring tools - software that creates Web sites * evaluation tools - Web accessibility evaluation tools, HTML validators, CSS validators, etc. Tim Berners-Lee published what is considered to be the first website in August 1991.[3] Berners-Lee was the first to combine Internet communication (which had been carrying email and the Usenet for decades) with hypertext (which had also been around for decades, but limited to browsing information stored on a single computer, such as interactive CD-ROM design). Websites are written in a markup language called HTML, and early versions of HTML were very basic, only giving a website's basic structure (headings and paragraphs), and the ability to link using hypertext. This was new and different from existing forms of communication - users could easily navigate to other pages by following hyperlinks from page to page. As the Web and Web design progressed, the markup language changed to become more complex and flexible, giving the ability to add objects like images and tables to a page. Features like tables, which were originally intended to be used to display tabular information, were soon subverted for use as invisible layout devices. With the advent of Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), table-based layout is commonly regarded as outdated. Database integration technologies such as server-side scripting and design standards like W3C further changed and enhanced the way the Web is made. As times change, websites are changing the code on the inside and visual design on the outside with ever-evolving programs and utilities. With the progression of the Web, tens of thousands of Web design companies have been established around the world to serve the growing demand for such work. As with much of the information technology industry, many Web design companies have been established in technology parks in the developing world as well as many Western design companies setting up offices in countries such as India, Romania, and Russia to take advantage of the relatively lower labor rates found in such countries. Firefox is a great browser! A computer repair technician is a person who repairs and maintains computers and servers. The technician's responsibilities may extend to include building or configuring new hardware, installing and updating software packages, and creating and maintaining computer networks. Computer repair technicians work in a variety of settings, encompassing both the public and private sectors. Because of the relative newness of the profession, institutions offer certificate and degree programs designed to prepare new technicians, but computer repairs are frequently performed by experienced and certified technicians who have little formal training in the field.[1] A repair technician might work in a corporate information technology department, a central service center, or a retail computer sales environment. A public sector technician might work in the military, national security or law enforcement communities, health or public safety field, or an educational institution. Despite the vast variety of work environments, all computer technicians perform similar physical and investigative processes, including technical support. Experienced technicians might specialize in fields such as data recovery, system administration, or information systems. Some technicians are self-employed or own a firm that provides services in a regional area. Some are subcontracted as freelancers or consultants. This type of technician ranges from hobbyists and enthusiasts that volunteer or make a little side money, to those who work professionally in the field. The repair of problems can range from a minor setting that is incorrect, to spyware, viruses, and as far as replacing hardware or an entire operating system. Some technicians provide on-site services usually at an hourly rate. Others can provide services off-site, where the client can drop off at the repair shop. Some have pickup and drop off services for convenience. Some may also take back old equipment for recycling (In the EU, this is required under WEEE rules). Computer networking or Data communications (Datacom) is the engineering discipline concerned with the communication between computer systems or devices. A computer network is any set of computers or devices connected to each other with the ability to exchange data.[1] Computer networking is sometimes considered a sub-discipline of telecommunications, computer science, information technology and/or computer engineering since it relies heavily upon the theoretical and practical application of these scientific and engineering disciplines. The three types of networks are: the Internet, the intranet, and the extranet. Examples of different network methods are: * Local area network (LAN), which is usually a small network constrained to a small geographic area. An example of a LAN would be a computer network within a building. * Metropolitan area network (MAN), which is used for medium size area. examples for a city or a state. * Wide area network (WAN) that is usually a larger network that covers a large geographic area. * Wireless LANs and WANs (WLAN & WWAN) are the wireless equivalent of the LAN and WAN. All networks are interconnected to allow communication with a variety of different kinds of media, including twisted-pair copper wire cable, coaxial cable, optical fiber, power lines and various wireless technologies.[2] The devices can be separated by a few meters (e.g. via Bluetooth) or nearly unlimited distances (e.g. via the interconnections of the Internet[3]). Networking, routers, routing protocols, and networking over the public Internet have their specifications defined in documents called RFCs. Views of networks Users and network administrators typically have different views of their networks. Users can share printers and some servers from a workgroup, which usually means they are in the same geographic location and are on the same LAN whereas a Network Administrator is responsible to keep that network, up and running. A community of interest has less of a connection of being in a local area, and should be thought of as a set of arbitrarily located users who share a set of servers , and possibly also communicate via peer-to-peer technologies. Network administrators can see networks from both physical and logical perspectives. The physical perspective involves geographic locations, physical cabling, and the network elements (e.g., routers, bridges and application layer gateways that interconnect the physical media. Logical networks, called, in the TCP/IP architecture, subnets, map onto one or more physical media. For example, a common practice in a campus of buildings is to make a set of LAN cables in each building appear to be a common subnet, using virtual LAN (VLAN) technology. Both users and administrators will be aware, to varying extents, of the trust and scope characteristics of a network. Again using TCP/IP architectural terminology, an intranet is a community of interest under private administration usually by an enterprise, and is only accessible by authorized users (e.g. employees).[5] Intranets do not have to be connected to the Internet, but generally have a limited connection. An extranet is an extension of an intranet that allows secure communications to users outside of the intranet (e.g. business partners, customers).[5] Unofficially, the Internet is the set of users, enterprises, and content providers that are interconnected by Internet Service Providers (ISP). From an engineering viewpoint, the Internet is the set of subnets, and aggregates of subnets, which share the registered IP address space and exchange information about the reachability of those IP addresses using the Border Gateway Protocol. Typically, the human-readable names of servers are translated to IP addresses, transparently to users, via the directory function of the Domain Name System (DNS). Over the Internet, there can be business-to-business (B2B), business-to-consumer (B2C) and consumer-to-consumer (C2C) communications. Especially when money or sensitive information is exchanged, the communications are apt to be secured by some form of communications security mechanism. Intranets and extranets can be securely superimposed onto the Internet, without any access by general Internet users, using secure Virtual Private Network (VPN) technology. When used for gaming one computer will need to be the server while the others play through it. History of computer networks Before the advent of computer networks that were based upon some type of telecommunications system, communication between calculation machines and early computers was performed by human users by carrying instructions between them. Many of the social behaviors seen in today's Internet were demonstrably present in the nineteenth century and arguably in even earlier networks using visual signals. In September 1940 George Stibitz used a teletype machine to send instructions for a problem set from his Model at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire to his Complex Number Calculator in New York and received results back by the same means. Linking output systems like teletypes to computers was an interest at the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) when, in 1962, J.C.R. Licklider was hired and developed a working group he called the "Intergalactic Network"Bold text, a precursor to the ARPANet. In 1964, researchers at Dartmouth developed the Dartmouth Time Sharing System for distributed users of large computer systems. The same year, at MIT, a research group supported by General Electric and Bell Labs used a computer DEC's to route and manage telephone connections. Throughout the 1960s Leonard Kleinrock, Paul Baran and Donald Davies independently conceptualized and developed network systems which used datagrams or packets that could be used in a network between computer systems. 1965 Thomas Merrill and Lawrence G. Roberts created the first wide area network (WAN). The first widely used PSTN switch that used true computer control was the Western Electric introduced in 1965. In 1969 the University of California at Los Angeles, SRI (in Stanford), University of California at Santa Barbara, and the University of Utah were connected as the beginning of the ARPANET network using 50 kbit/s circuits. Commercial services using X.25 were deployed in 1972, and later used as an underlying infrastructure for expanding TCP/IP networks. Computer networks, and the technologies needed to connect and communicate through and between them, continue to drive computer hardware, software, and peripherals industries. This expansion is mirrored by growth in the numbers and types of users of networks from the researcher to the home user. Today, computer networks are the core of modern communication. All modern aspects of the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) are computer- controlled, and telephony increasingly runs over the Internet Protocol, although not necessarily the public Internet. The scope of communication has increased significantly in the past decade, and this boom in communications would not have been possible without the progressively advancing computer network. Networking methods One way to categorize computer networks is by their geographic scope, although many real-world networks interconnect Local Area Networks (LAN) via Wide Area Networks (WAN) and wireless wide area networks (WWAN). These three (broad) types are: Local area network (LAN) A local area network is a network that spans a relatively small space and provides services to a small number of people. A peer-to-peer or client-server method of networking may be used. A peer-to-peer network is where each client shares their resources with other workstations in the network. Examples of peer-to-peer networks are: Small office networks where resource use is minimal and a home network. A client- server network is where every client is connected to the server and each other. Client-server networks use servers in different capacities. These can be classified into two types: 1. Single-service servers 2. Print servers The server performs one task such as file server, while other servers can not only perform in the capacity of file servers and print servers, but also can conduct calculations and use them to provide information to clients (Web/Intranet Server). Computers may be connected in many different ways, including Ethernet cables, Wireless networks, or other types of wires such as power lines or phone lines. The ITU-T G.hn standard is an example of a technology that provides high-speed (up to 1 Gbit/s) local area networking over existing home wiring (power lines, phone lines and coaxial cables). Wide area network (WAN) A wide area network is a network where a wide variety of resources are deployed across a large domestic area or internationally. An example of this is a multinational business that uses a WAN to interconnect their offices in different countries. The largest and best example of a WAN is the Internet, which is a network composed of many smaller networks. The Internet is considered the largest network in the world.[6] The PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) also is an extremely large network that is converging to use Internet technologies, although not necessarily through the public Internet. A Wide Area Network involves communication through the use of a wide range of different technologies. These technologies include Point-to-Point WANs such as Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) and High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC), Frame Relay, ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) and Sonet (Synchronous Optical Network). The difference between the WAN technologies is based on the switching capabilities they perform and the speed at which sending and receiving bits of information (data) occur. Wireless networks (WLAN, WWAN) A wireless network is basically the same as a LAN or a WAN but there are no wires between hosts and servers. The data is transferred over sets of radio transceivers. These types of networks are beneficial when it is too costly or inconvenient to run the necessary cables. For more information, see Wireless LAN and Wireless wide area network. The media access protocols for LANs come from the IEEE. The most common IEEE 802.11 WLANs cover, depending on antennas, ranges from hundreds of meters to a few kilometers. For larger areas, either communications satellites of various types, cellular radio, or wireless local loop (IEEE 802.16) all have advantages and disadvantages. Depending on the type of mobility needed, the relevant standards may come from the IETF or the ITU. Network topology The network topology defines the way in which computers, printers, and other devices are connected, physically and logically. A network topology describes the layout of the wire and devices as well as the paths used by data transmissions. Network topology has two types: * Physical * Logical Commonly used topologies include: * Bus * Star * Tree (hierarchical) * Linear * Ring * Mesh o partially connected o fully connected (sometimes known as fully redundant) The network topologies mentioned above are only a general representation of the kinds of topologies used in computer network and are considered basic topologies See also Book:Computer Networking Books are collections of articles that can be downloaded or ordered in print. * Data transmission * Digital communications * Communication network * Network architecture * Data interventions References 1. ^ http://www.atis.org/tg2k/_computer_network.html Computer network definition 2. ^ http://www.bellevuelinux.org/network.html Computer networks defined. 3. ^ Interplanetary Internet, 2000 Third Annual International Symposium on Advanced Radio Technologies, A. Hooke,September 2000 4. ^ The Internet Standards Process -- Revision 3, RFC 2026, rushawn o wright, October 1996. 5. ^ a b RFC 2547 6. ^ http://www.pcmag.com/encyclopedia_term/0,2542,t=internet&j=54184,00.asp "internet" defined * Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Computer Networks (ISBN 0-13-349945-6). * Important publications in computer networks * Vinton G. Cerf "Software: Global Infrastructure for the 21st Century" * Meyers, Mike, "Mike Meyers' Certifcation Passport: Network+" ISBN 0072253487" * Odom, Wendall, "CCNA Certification Guide" * Network Communication Architecture and Protocols: OSI Network Architecture 7 Layers Model. External links * Easy Network Concepts (Linux kernel specific) * Computer Networks and Protocol (Research document, 2006) * Computer Networking Glossary * Networking at the Open Directory Project Love you, Wikipedia! Washington county, Benton county, we cover these counties. New computer setup is great! Also, this originated from Wikipedia in February of 2010: Web design is a broad term used to encompass the way that content (usually hypertext or hypermedia) is delivered to an end-user through the World Wide Web, using a web browser or other web-enabled software is displayed. The intent of web design is to create a website—a collection of online content including documents and applications that reside on a web server/servers. A website may include text, images, sounds and other content, and may be interactive. Contents [hide] * 1 Overview * 2 Content * 3 Accessible web design * 4 History * 5 Website planning o 5.1 Context o 5.2 Purpose o 5.3 Audience o 5.4 Compatibility and restrictions o 5.5 Planning documentation * 6 Website design o 6.1 Multidisciplinary requirements o 6.2 Environment o 6.3 Collaboration o 6.4 Form versus function o 6.5 Layout + 6.5.1 Layout types + 6.5.2 Layout concerns o 6.6 Device o 6.7 Tableless web design * 7 Content Management * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links [edit] Overview Web design involves the structure of the website including the information architecture (navigation schemes and naming conventions), the layout or the pages (wireframes or page schematics are created to show consistent placement of items including functional features), and the conceptual design with branding. [edit] Content Such elements as text, forms, images (GIFs, JPEGs, Portable Network Graphics) and video can be placed on the page using HTML/XHTML/XML tags. Older browsers may require Plug-ins such as Adobe Flash, QuickTime, Java run-time environment, etc. to display some media, which are embedded into web page by using HTML/XHTML tags. Improvements in browsers' compliance with W3C standards prompted a widespread acceptance and usage of XHTML/XML in conjunction with Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) to position and manipulate web page elements and objects. Typically web pages are classified as static or dynamic: * Static pages don’t change content and layout with every request unless a human (web master/programmer) manually updates the page. A simple HTML page is an example of static content. * Dynamic pages adapt their content and/or appearance depending on end-user’s input/interaction or changes in the computing environment (user, time, database modifications, etc.) Content can be changed on the client side (end-user's computer) by using client-side scripting languages (JavaScript, JScript, Actionscript, etc.) to alter DOM elements (DHTML). Dynamic content is often compiled on the server utilizing server-side scripting languages (Perl, PHP, ASP, JSP, ColdFusion, etc.). Both approaches are usually used in complex applications. With growing specialization in the information technology field there is a strong tendency to distinguish between web design and web development. Web design is a kind of graphic design intended for the development and styling of objects of the Internet's information environment to provide them with high-end consumer features and aesthetic qualities. This definition separates web design from web programming, emphasizing the functional features of a web site, as well as positioning web design as a kind of graphic design.[1] The process of designing web pages, web sites, web applications or multimedia for the Web may utilize multiple disciplines, such as animation, authoring, communication design, corporate identity, graphic design, human-computer interaction, information architecture, interaction design, marketing, photography, search engine optimization and typography. * Markup languages (such as HTML, XHTML and XML) * Style sheet languages (such as CSS and XSL) * Client-side scripting (such as JavaScript) * Server-side scripting (such as PHP and ASP) * Database technologies (such as MySQL and PostgreSQL) * Multimedia technologies (such as Flash and Silverlight) Web pages and websites can be static pages, or can be programmed to be dynamic pages that automatically adapt content or visual appearance depending on a variety of factors, such as input from the end-user, input from the webmaster or changes in the computing environment (such as the site's associated database having been modified). [edit] Accessible web design Main article: Web accessibility To be accessible, web pages and sites must conform to certain accessibility principles. These accessibility principles are known as the WCAG when talking about content. These can be grouped into the following main areas.[2] * Use semantic markup that provides a meaningful structure to the document (i.e. web page) * Semantic markup also refers to semantically organizing the web page structure and publishing web services description accordingly so that they can be recognized by other web services on different web pages. Standards for semantic web are set by IEEE * Use a valid markup language that conforms to a published DTD or Schema * Provide text equivalents for any non-text components (e.g. images, multimedia) * Use hyperlinks that make sense when read out of context. (e.g. avoid "Click Here") Website accessibility is also changing as it is impacted by Content Management Systems that allow changes to be made to webpages without the need of obtaining web-based programming language knowledge. It is very important that several different components of web development and interaction can work together in order for the Web to be accessible to people with disabilities. These components include: * content - the information in a web page or web application, including: o natural information such as text, images, and sounds o code or markup that defines structure, presentation, etc. * Web browsers, media players, and other "user agents" * assistive technology, in some cases - screen readers, alternative keyboards, switches, scanning software, etc. * users' knowledge, experiences, and in some cases, adaptive strategies using the Web * developers - designers, coders, authors, etc., including developers with disabilities and users who contribute content * authoring tools - software that creates web sites * evaluation tools - web accessibility evaluation tools, HTML validators, CSS validators, etc. [edit] History Tim Berners-Lee published what is considered to be the first website in August 1991.[3] Berners-Lee was the first to combine Internet communication (which had been carrying email and the Usenet for decades) with hypertext (which had also been around for decades, but limited to browsing information stored on a single computer, such as interactive CD-ROM design). Websites are written in a markup language called HTML, and early versions of HTML were very basic, only giving a website's basic structure (headings and paragraphs), and the ability to link using hypertext. This was new and different from existing forms of communication - users could easily navigate to other pages by following hyperlinks from page to page. As the Web and web design progressed, the markup language changed to become more complex and flexible, giving the ability to add objects like images and tables to a page. Features like tables, which were originally intended to be used to display tabular information, were soon subverted for use as invisible layout devices. With the advent of Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), table-based layout is commonly regarded as outdated. Database integration technologies such as server-side scripting and design standards like W3C further changed and enhanced the way the Web is made. As times change, websites are changing the code on the inside and visual design on the outside with ever-evolving programs and utilities. With the progression of the Web, tens of thousands of web design companies have been established around the world to serve the growing demand for such work. As with much of the information technology industry, many web design companies have been established in technology parks in the developing world as well as many Western design companies setting up offices in countries such as India, Romania, and Russia to take advantage of the relatively lower labor rates found in such countries. [edit] Website planning Purposing web design is a complex, but essential ongoing activity. Before creating and uploading a website, it is important to take the time to plan exactly what is needed in the website. Thoroughly considering the audience or target market, as well as defining the purpose and deciding what content will be developed, are extremely important. [edit] Context Web design is similar (in a very simplistic way) to traditional print publishing. Every website is an information display container, just as a book; and every web page is like the page in a book. However, web design uses a framework based on digital code and display technology to construct and maintain an environment to distribute information in multiple formats. Taken to its fullest potential, web design is undoubtedly the most sophisticated and increasingly complex method to support communication in today's world. [edit] Purpose It is essential to define the purpose of the website as one of the first steps in the planning process. A purpose statement should show focus based on what the website will accomplish and what the users will get from it. A clearly defined purpose will help the rest of the planning process as the audience is identified and the content of the site is developed. Setting short and long term goals for the website will help make the purpose clear and plan for the future when expansion, modification, and improvement will take place. Measurable objectives should be identified to track the progress of the site and determine success. [edit] Audience Defining the audience is a key step in the website planning process. The audience is the group of people who are expected to visit your website – the market being targeted. These people will be viewing the website for a specific reason and it is important to know exactly what they are looking for when they visit the site. A clearly defined purpose or goal of the site as well as an understanding of what visitors want to do or feel when they come to your site will help to identify the target audience. Upon considering who is most likely to need or use the content, a list of characteristics common to the users such as: * Audience Characteristics * Information Preferences * Computer Specifications * Web Experience Taking into account the characteristics of the audience will allow an effective website to be created that will deliver the desired content to the target audience. [edit] Compatibility and restrictions Because of the market share of modern browsers (depending on your target market), the compatibility of your website with the viewers is restricted. For instance, a website that is designed for the majority of websurfers will be limited to the use of valid XHTML 1.0 Strict or older, Cascading Style Sheets Level 1, and 1024x768 display resolution. This is because Internet Explorer is not fully W3C standards compliant with the modularity of XHTML 1.1 and the majority of CSS beyond 1. A target market of more alternative browser (e.g. Firefox, Google Chrome, Safari and Opera) users allow for more W3C compliance and thus a greater range of options for a web designer. Another restriction on webpage design is the use of different image file formats. The majority of users can support GIF, JPEG, and PNG (with restrictions). Again Internet Explorer is the major restriction here, not fully supporting PNG's advanced transparency features, resulting in the GIF format still being the most widely used graphic file format for transparent images. Many website incompatibilities go unnoticed by the designer and unreported by the users. The only way to be certain a website will work on a particular platform is to test it on that platform. [edit] Planning documentation Documentation is used to visually plan the site while taking into account the purpose, audience and content, to design the site structure, content and interactions that are most suitable for the website. Documentation may be considered a prototype for the website – a model which allows the website layout to be reviewed, resulting in suggested changes, improvements and/or enhancements. This review process increases the likelihood of success of the website. The first step may involve information architecture in which the content is categorized and the information structure is formulated. The information structure is used to develop a document or visual diagram called a site map. This creates a visual of how the web pages or content will be interconnected, and may help in deciding what content will be placed on what pages. In addition to planning the structure, the layout and interface of individual pages may be planned using a storyboard. In the process of storyboarding, a record is made of the description, purpose and title of each page in the site, and they are linked together according to the most effective and logical diagram type. Depending on the number of pages required for the website, documentation methods may include using pieces of paper and drawing lines to connect them, or creating the storyboard using computer software. [edit] Website design Web design is different than traditional print publishing. Every website is an information display container, just as a book is a container; and every web page is like the page in a book. However the end size and shape of the web page is not known to the web designer, whereas the print designer will know exactly what size paper he will be printing on. [4] For the typical web sites, the basic aspects of design are: * The content: the substance, and information on the site should be relevant to the site and should target the area of the public that the website is concerned with. * The usability: the site should be user-friendly, with the interface and navigation simple and reliable. * The appearance: the graphics and text should include a single style that flows throughout, to show consistency. The style should be professional, appealing and relevant. * The structure: of the web site as a whole. A web site typically consists of text, images, animation and /or video. The first page of a web site is known as the Home page or Index Page. Some web sites use what is commonly called a Splash Page. Splash pages might include a welcome message, language or region selection, or disclaimer, however search engines, in general, favor web sites that don't do this which has caused these types of pages to fall out of favor. Each web page within a web site is a file which has its own URL. After each web page is created, they are typically linked together using a navigation menu composed of hyperlinks. Once a web site is completed, it must be published or uploaded in order to be viewable to the public over the internet. This may be done using an FTP client. [edit] Multidisciplinary requirements Web site design crosses multiple disciplines of multiple information systems, information technology, marketing, and communication design. The web site is an information system whose components are sometimes classified as front-end and back-end. The observable content (e.g. page layout, user interface, graphics, text, audio) is known as the front-end. The back-end comprises the organization and efficiency of the source code, invisible scripted functions, and the server-side components that process the output from the front-end. Depending on the size of a web development project, it may be carried out by a multi-skilled individual (sometimes called a web master), or a project manager may oversee collaborative design between group members with specialized skills. [edit] Environment Layout is a double edged sword: on the one hand, it is the expression of a framework that actively shapes the web designer. On the other hand, as the designer adapts that framework to projects, layout is the means of content delivery. Publishing a web engages communication throughout the production process as well as within the product created. Publication implies adaptation of culture and content standards. Web design incorporates multiple intersections between many layers of technical and social understanding, demanding creative direction, design element structure, and some form of social organization. Differing goals and methods resolve effectively in successful deployment of education, software and team management during the design process. However, many competing and evolving platforms and environments challenge acceptance, completion and continuity of every design product. [edit] Collaboration Early web design was less integrated with companies’ advertising campaigns, customer transactions, extranets, intranets and social networking. Web sites were seen largely as static online brochures or database connection points, disconnected from the broader scopes of a business or project. Many web sites are still disconnected from the broader project scope. As a result, many web sites are needlessly difficult to use, indirect in their way of communicating, and suffer from a 'disconnected' or ineffective bureaucratic information architecture. [edit] Form versus function A web developer may pay more attention to how a page looks while neglecting other copywriting and search engine optimization functions such as the readability of text, the ease of navigating the site, or how easily the visitors are going to find the site. As a result, the designers may end up in disputes where some want more decorative graphics at the expense of keyword-rich text, bullet lists, and text links. Assuming a false dichotomy that form and function are mutually exclusive overlooks the possibility of integrating multiple disciplines for a collaborative and synergistic solution. In many cases form follows function. Because some graphics serve communication purposes in addition to aesthetics, how well a site works may depend on the graphic design ideas as well as the professional writing considerations. When using a lot of graphics, or sending a lot of instructions to the end client computer, a web page may load slowly, often irritating the user. This has become less of a problem as the internet has evolved with high-speed internet and the use of vector graphics. However there is still an ongoing engineering challenge to increase bandwidth and an artistic challenge to minimize the amount of graphics and their file sizes. This challenge is compounded since increased bandwidth encourages more graphics with larger file sizes. [edit] Layout [edit] Layout types Layout refers to the dimensioning of content in a device display, and the delivery of media in a content related stream. Web design layouts result in visual content frameworks: these frameworks can be fixed, they can use units of measure that are relative, or they can provide fluid layout with proportional dimensions. The deployment flowchart (a useful tool on any design project) should address content layout. Many units of measure exist, but here are some popular dimension formats: * Pixel measure results in fixed or static content * Em measure results in proportional content that is relative to font-size * Percent measure results in fluid content that shrinks and grows to "fit" display windows Proportional, liquid and hybrid layout are also referred to as dynamic design. Hybrid layout incorporates any combination of fixed, proportional or fluid elements within (or pointing to) a single page. The hybrid web design framework is made possible by digital internet conventions generally prescribed by the W3C. If any layout does not appear as it should, it is very likely that it does not conform to standard design principles, or that those standards conflict with standard layout elements. Current knowledge of standards is essential to effective hybrid design. The earliest web pages used fixed layouts without exception. In many business pages fixed layouts are preferred today as they easily contain static tabled information. Fixed layout enforces device display convention, as viewers must set their display to at least a certain width to easily view content. This width can include display of corporate logos, cautions, advertisements and any other target content. Design frameworks for fixed layout may need to include coding for multiple display devices. Hybrid design maintains most static content control, but is adapted to textual publishing, and for readers, to conventional (printed) display. Hybrid layouts are generally easy on the eye and are found on most sites that distribute traditional images and text to readers. For some sites, hybrid design makes an otherwise cold text column appear warm and balanced. A good example of hybrid layout is Wordpress, where liquid design is now optional, and movie and auditory media is stretching the envelope. Fluid design is useful where content is delivered to an 'unknown device' population. Appropriate liquid code displays images, text and spaces proportional to display size. Someone with a handheld can see view and interact with the same content as someone using a large desktop monitor. However, scaling of content for a variety of devices has more recently evolved with modern web browsers, allowing users to see the same layout across all devices. [edit] Layout concerns This section is written like a personal reflection or essay and may require cleanup. Please help improve it by rewriting it in an encyclopedic style. (December 2009) With the coming of numerous monitor sizes, "fluid" web sites are becoming less common. The result is that fluid layouts look "old" because they were typically used more in the early days of the internet. In dealing with font layout, even expressed as ems, a static core cannot be escaped and often anchors most page content. However, as new standards are adopted by device manufacturers, viewers notice a wider spectrum of content and a greater interaction between and through content. For the World Wide Web Consortium drawing up tomorrows layout conventions, new media types and methods are increasingly in the mix. It is a true double axiom that 'content is all about layout', and 'layout is all about content'. We could say that layout is what designers squeeze into available technology — content is the culture manifested in the layout. "Space' is the envelope holding layout and content together. Space communicates style (layout appearance) to the target population. Understanding how to adapt space to this layout-content relationship is essential to web design. Every design's survivability depends on its sensitivity to emerging technology (within the cultures that its framework is servicing), and immediate acceptance depends on the layout or presentation of that content. On every page, no content is more susceptible to changes and variations in standards, than space. While the professional designer casually admits that 90% of design code is used to adapt space, most of his current work deploys spatial manipulations being used to actively reshape Internet communication. Conceptual barriers to adequate layout abound! Presently layout is challenged by conflicting convention that makes it impossible to fit liquid and hybrid layout to the bottom corners of a display. Simply put, display device manufactures use the top right and/or left corners to display content. For non-standard equipment, setting custom fixed layout to their device is still seen by some businesses as a means of increasing revenue, as they can sell a 'unique' display. This business approach, domainating the digital market at the end of the last century, is not so useful today. However, some would claim a decade behind schedule, CSS3 and HTML5 are finally taking the four penultimate display reference points seriously. A common misconception among designers is to assume their layout is liquid because initial space and text container widths are in percents. However, their 'liquid' framework, while adhering to focused conventions, failed to manage graphic content. A subsequent edit placing a large image on the page, destroys the page appearance. When managing a design framework, it is critical that layout address content, convention and user interaction. [edit] Device On the Web the designer has no control over several factors, including the size of the browser window, the web browser used, the input devices used (operating system, mouse, touch screen, voice command, text, teletype, cell phone, or other hand-held), and the size, design, and other characteristics of the fonts that users have available (installed) and enabled (preference) on their device. Unique manufacture and conflicting device contentions are further complicated by varying browser interpretations of the same content, and some content automatically can trigger browser changes. Web designers do well to study and become proficient at removing competitive device and software markup so that web pages display as they are coded to display. Eric Meyers, a well known educator and developer, is one of many resources who have spear-headed HTML reset coding. While they cannot yet leave one local environment to control another, web designers can adjust target environments to remove much common markup that alters or corrupts their web content. Because device manufacturers are highly protective of their patent markup, Meyers and others caution that reset remains experimental. [edit] Tableless web design Main article: Tableless web design When Netscape Navigator 4 dominated the browser market, the popular solution available for designers to lay out a web page was by using tables. Often even simple designs for a page would require dozens of tables nested in each other. Many web templates in Dreamweaver and other WYSIWYG editors still use this technique today. Navigator 4 didn't support CSS to a useful degree, so it simply wasn't used. After the browser wars subsided, and the dominant browsers such as Internet Explorer became more W3C compliant, designers started turning toward CSS as an alternate means of laying out their pages. CSS proponents say that tables should be used only for tabular data, not for layout. Using CSS instead of tables also returns HTML to a semantic markup, which helps bots and search engines understand what's going on in a web page. All modern web browsers support CSS with different degrees of limitations. However, one of the main points against CSS is that by relying on it exclusively, control is essentially relinquished as each browser has its own quirks which result in a slightly different page display. This is especially a problem as not every browser supports the same subset of CSS rules. There are the means to apply different styles depending on which browser and version are used but incorporating these exceptions makes maintaining the style sheets more difficult as there are styles in more than one place to update. For designers who are used to table-based layouts, developing web sites in CSS often becomes a matter of trying to replicate what can be done with tables, leading some to find CSS design rather cumbersome due to lack of familiarity. For example, at one time it was rather difficult to produce certain design elements, such as vertical positioning, and full-length footers in a design using absolute positions. With the abundance of CSS resources available online today, though, designing with reasonable adherence to standards involves little more than applying CSS 2.1 or CSS 3 to properly structured markup. These days most modern browsers have solved most of these quirks in CSS rendering and this has made many different CSS layouts possible. However, some people continue to use old browsers, and designers need to keep this in mind, and allow for graceful degrading of pages in older browsers. Most notable among these old browsers is Internet Explorer 6, which is viewed in the web design community as becoming the new Netscape Navigator 4 — a block that holds the World Wide Web back from converting to CSS design. However, the W3 Consortium has made CSS in combination with XHTML the standard for web design. [edit] Content Management Main article: Content management Many sites require frequent content changes and new content publishing at short notice. Content Management Systems (CMS) allow non-technical contributors to maintain and update site content without programing knowledge or special software tools. Typically content on the website is editable using a "What You See Is What You Get" (WYSIWYG) model. In addition to maintaining existing content, CMS administrators can upload images or videos, create pages, sections or categories, and add or edit menu structures. There are several options popular to current use. Web development: Web development is a broad term for the work involved in developing a web site for the Internet (World Wide Web) or an intranet (a private network). This can include web design, web content development, client liaison, client-side/server-side scripting, web server and network security configuration, and e-commerce development. However, among web professionals, "web development" usually refers to the main non-design aspects of building web sites: writing markup and coding. Web development can range from developing the simplest static single page of plain text to the most complex web-based internet applications, electronic businesses, or social network services. For larger organizations and businesses, web development teams can consist of hundreds of people (web developers). Smaller organizations may only require a single permanent or contracting webmaster, or secondary assignment to related job positions such as a graphic designer and/or information systems technician. Web development may be a collaborative effort between departments rather than the domain of a designated department. Contents [hide] * 1 Web development as an industry * 2 Typical Areas o 2.1 Client Side Coding o 2.2 Server Side Coding o 2.3 Client Side + Server Side o 2.4 Database Technology * 3 Security Considerations * 4 Timeline * 5 References * 6 See also [edit] Web development as an industry Since the mid-1990s, web development has been one of the fastest growing industries in the world. In 1995 there were fewer than 1,000 web development companies in the United States, but by 2005 there were over 30,000 such companies in the U.S. alone.[1][dubious – discuss] The growth of this industry is being pushed by large businesses wishing to sell products and services to their customers and to automate business workflow. In addition, cost of Web site development and hosting has dropped dramatically during this time. Instead of costing ten thousands of dollars, as was the case for early websites, one can now develop a simple web site for less than a thousand dollars, depending on the complexity and amount of content.[citation needed] Smaller Web site development companies are now able to make web design accessible to both smaller companies and individuals further fueling the growth of the web development industry. As far as web development tools and platforms are concerned, there are many systems available to the public free of charge to aid in development. A popular example is the LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP) stack, which is usually distributed free of charge. This fact alone has manifested into many people around the globe setting up new Web sites daily and thus contributing to increase in web development popularity. Another contributing factor has been the rise of easy to use WYSIWYG web development software, most prominently Adobe Dreamweaver, Netbeans, WebDev, or Microsoft Expression Studio, Adobe Flex. Using such software, virtually anyone can develop a Web page in a matter of minutes. Knowledge of HyperText Markup Language (HTML), or other programming languages is not required, but recommended for professional results. The next generation of web development tools uses the strong growth in LAMP, Java Platform, Enterprise Edition technologies and Microsoft .NET technologies to provide the Web as a way to run applications online. Web developers now help to deliver applications as Web services which were traditionally only available as applications on a desk based computer. Instead of running executable code on a local computer, users are interacting with online applications to create new content. This has created new methods in communication and allowed for many opportunities to decentralize information and media distribution. Users are now able to interact with applications from many locations, instead of being tied to a specific workstation for their application environment. Examples of dramatic transformation in communication and commerce led by web development include e-commerce. Online auction sites such as eBay have changed the way consumers consume and purchase goods and services. Online resellers such as Amazon.com and Buy.com (among many, many others) have transformed the shopping and bargain hunting experience for many consumers. Another good example of transformative communication led by web development is the blog. Web applications such as WordPress and Movable Type have created easily implemented blog environments for individual Web sites. Open source content management systems such as Joomla!, Drupal, XOOPS, and TYPO3 and enterprise content management systems such as Alfresco have extended web development into new modes of interaction and communication. In addition, web development has moved to a new phase of Internet communication. Computer web sites are no longer simply tools for work or commerce but used most for communication. Websites such as Facebook and Twitter provide users a platform to freely communicate. This new form of web communication is also changing e-commerce through the number of hits and online advertisement. [edit] Typical Areas Web Development can be split into many areas and a typical and basic web development hierarchy might consist of: [edit] Client Side Coding * Ajax Asynchronous JavaScript provides new methods of using JavaScript, and other languages to improve the user experience. * Flash Adobe Flash Player is an ubiquitous browser plugin ready for RIAs. Flex 2 is also deployed to the Flash Player (version 9+). * JavaScript Formally called ECMAScript, JavaScript is a ubiquitous client side platform for creating and delivering rich Web applications that can also run across a wide variety of devices. * Microsoft Silverlight Microsoft's browser plugin that enables animation, vector graphics and high-definition video playback, programmed using XAML and .NET programming languages. * REAL Studio Web Edition is a rapid application development environment for the web. The language is object oriented and is similar to both VB and Java. Applications are uniquely compiled to binary code. * HTML5 and CSS3 Latest HTML proposed standard combined with the latest proposed standard for CSS natively supports much of the client-side functionality provided by other frameworks such as Flash and Silverlight [edit] Server Side Coding * ASP (Microsoft proprietary) * CSP, Server-Side ANSI C * ColdFusion (Adobe proprietary, formerly Macromedia, formerly Allaire) * CGI and/or Perl (open source) * Groovy (programming language) Grails (framework) * Java, e.g. Java EE or WebObjects * Lotus Domino * PHP (open source) * Python, e.g. Django (web framework) (open source) * REAL Studio Web Edition * Ruby, e.g. Ruby on Rails (open source) * Smalltalk e.g. Seaside, AIDA/Web * SSJS Server-Side JavaScript, e.g. Aptana Jaxer, Mozilla Rhino * Websphere (IBM proprietary) * .NET (Microsoft proprietary) The World Wide Web has become a major delivery platform for web development a variety of complex and sophisticated enterprise applications in several domains. In addition to their inherent multifaceted functionality, these web applications exhibit complex behavior and place some unique demands on their usability, performance, security and ability to grow and evolve. However, a vast majority of these applications continue to be developed in an ad-hoc way, contributing to problems of usability, maintainability, quality and reliability.(1)(2) While web development can benefit from established practices from other related disciplines, it has certain distinguishing characteristics that demand special considerations. In recent years of web development there have been some developments towards addressing these problems and requirements. As an emerging discipline, web engineering actively promotes systematic, disciplined and quantifiable approaches towards successful development of high-quality, ubiquitously usable web-based systems and applications.(3)(4) In particular, web engineering focuses on the methodologies, techniques and tools that are the foundation of web application development and which support their design, development, evolution, and evaluation. Web application development has certain characteristics that make it different from traditional software, information system, or computer application development. Web engineering is multidisciplinary and encompasses contributions from diverse areas: systems analysis and design, software engineering, hypermedia/hypertext engineering, requirements engineering, human-computer interaction, user interface, information engineering, information indexing and retrieval, testing, modelling and simulation, project management, and graphic design and presentation. Web engineering is neither a clone, nor a subset of software engineering, although both involve programming and software development. While web engineering uses software engineering principles, web development encompasses new approaches, methodologies, tools, techniques, and guidelines to meet the unique requirements of web-based applications. [edit] Client Side + Server Side * Google Web Toolkit provides tools to create and maintain complex JavaScript front-end applications in Java. * Pyjamas is a tool and framework for developing Ajax applications and Rich Internet Applications in python. * Tersus is a platform for the development of rich web applications by visually defining user interface, client side behavior and server side processing. (open source) However lesser known languages like Ruby and Python are often paired with database servers other than MySQL (the M in LAMP). Below are example of other databases currently in wide use on the web. For instance some developers prefer a LAPR(Linux/Apache/PostgreSQL/Ruby on Rails) setup for development. [edit] Database Technology * Apache Derby * DB2 (IBM proprietary) * Firebird * Microsoft SQL Server * MySQL * Oracle * PostgreSQL * SQLite * Sybase In practice, many web developers will also have interdisciplinary skills / roles, including: * Graphic design / web design * Information architecture and copywriting/copyediting with web usability, accessibility and search engine optimization in mind * Project management, QA and other aspects common to IT development in general The above list is a simple website development hierarchy and can be extended to include all client side and server side aspects. It is still important to remember that web development is generally split up into client side coding, covering aspects such as the layout and design, and server side coding, which covers the website's functionality and back end systems. Looking at these items from an "umbrella approach", client side coding such as XHTML is executed and stored on a local client (in a web browser) whereas server side code is not available to a client and is executed on a web server which generates the appropriate XHTML which is then sent to the client. The nature of client side coding allows you to alter the HTML on a local client and refresh the pages with updated content (locally), web designers must bear in mind the importance and relevance to security with their server side scripts. If a server side script accepts content from a locally modified client side script, the web development of that page is poorly sanitized with relation to security. [edit] Security Considerations Web development takes into account many security considerations, such as data entry error checking through forms, filtering output, and encryption.[2] Malicious practices such as SQL injection can be executed by users with ill intent yet with only primitive knowledge of web development as a whole. Scripts can be exploited to grant unauthorized access to malicious users trying to collect information such as email addresses, passwords and protected content like credit card numbers. Some of this is dependent on the server environment (most commonly Apache or Microsoft IIS) on which the scripting language, such as PHP, Ruby, Python, Perl or ASP is running, and therefore is not necessarily down to the web developer themselves to maintain. However, stringent testing of web applications before public release is encouraged to prevent such exploits from occurring. Keeping a web server safe from intrusion is often called Server Port Hardening. Many technologies come into play when keeping information on the internet safe when it is transmitted from one location to another. For instance Secure Socket Layer Encryption (SSL) Certificates are issued by certificate authorities to help prevent internet fraud. Many developers often employ different forms of encryption when transmitting and storing sensitive information. A basic understanding of information technology security concerns is often part of a web developer's knowledge. Because new security holes are found in web applications even after testing and launch, security patch updates are frequent for widely used applications. It is often the job of web developers to keep applications up to date as security patches are released and new security concerns are discovered. [edit] Timeline Web development timeline.png [edit] References 1. ^ Kiran, Charles. "The Web Development Industry Is Expected To Grow Over 20 By 2010". Articler. http://www.articler.com/23205/The-Web-Development-Industry-Is-Expected-To-Grow-Over-20-By-2010.html. 2. ^ "Web Application Security". DocForge. 22 February 2010. http://docforge.com/wiki/Web_application/Security. Retrieved 17 December 2008. [edit] See also * Cross-browser * Professional web designers * Web site design COFFEE, I LIKE IT!
computer diagnostic and repair, web development, computer networking, data recovery, data back up, network security, computer security, computer trouble shooting, search engine optimization, digital photography, graphic design, custom computers Computer repair needs to be done. Your website is important. Web development is fun. Fast computer fix! Nerds and geeks to develop your website. Networking computers for home and small office everyday. The stars use Panther Data Tech LLC. Rogers AR has a nice trail system, computer mapping helped design it. Fayetteville AR also has a great trial system, the planners needed a computer network to get the job done. They also needed servers. Virtual private servers would have been cost effective for them! Virtual private networking would let them work from home or telecommute. Your Dell break down? We can fix your Gateway! Your Toshiba laptop unhappy? Let use fix your machine right up. DVD ROM need replacing? We have Blue Ray burners! 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Personal computing is spiffy stuff! Nifty sites, gigantic websites, E commerce, we do that, we do it very well. Mother boards and CPUs are important. RAM, random access memory should pass all tests, we test it all. You like I Phones. Blackberrys are also useful. Androids are functional. Panther Data Tech specializes in quality Computer Repair. Repair of your PC is groovy. The best place to find your business is via your website. Are you in Yahoo local? Google local, or maps, or whatever it is called... Robots can do a few neat things. Protect your privacy with a network of security and speed. Flawless servers serving up great apple pies. Microsoft is a really big company. Fans help keep your computer cool. Cat 6 carries a Gigabit signal over the twisted pair copper wires. Cables are faster then wireless networking. Network cards get you online. WI FI is convenient. Northwest Arkansas is a nice place. Computer repair in Northwest Arkansas, we do. NWA computer repair, Panther Data Tech LLC is your source. NWA web development, we got it. SO/HO networking solutions at Panther Tech. Panther Data Tech LLC provides excellent I.T. support services for your small business or home. Stellar computer repair, data recovery and custom computers, Panther Data Tech is here for you. We also provide web development, web programming and SEO services, as well as database programming and database management. Networking and Network security, SO/HO, is an area we specialize in. The following is from Wikipedia: A personal computer (PC) is any general-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and original sales price make it useful for individuals, and which is intended to be operated directly by an end user with no intervening computer operator. This is in contrast to the batch processing or time-sharing models which allowed large expensive mainframe systems to be used by many people, usually at the same time, or large data processing systems which required a full-time staff to operate efficiently. It is also in contrast with the more recent trend of controlling software availability through an intervening third party such as the Apple App Store. A personal computer may be a desktop computer, a laptop, a tablet PC, or a handheld PC (also called a palmtop). The most common microprocessors in personal computers are x86-compatible CPUs. Software applications for personal computers include word processing, spreadsheets, databases, Web browsers and e-mail clients, games, and myriad personal productivity and special-purpose software applications. Modern personal computers often have connections to the Internet, allowing access to the World Wide Web and a wide range of other resources. A PC may be used at home or in an office. Personal computers may be connected to a local area network (LAN), either by a cable or a wireless connection. While early PC owners usually had to write their own programs to do anything useful with the machines, today's users have access to a wide range of commercial and non-commercial software, which is provided in ready-to-run or ready-to-compile form. Since the 1980s, Microsoft and Intel have dominated much of the personal computer market, first with MS-DOS and then with the Wintel platform. Web design is a broad term used to encompass the way that content (usually hypertext or hypermedia) that are delivered to an end-user through the World Wide Web, using a Web browser or other Web-enabled software is displayed. The intent of web design is to create a website—a collection of online content including documents and applications that reside on a Web server/servers. The website may include text, images, sounds and other content, and may be interactive. Web design involves the structure of the website including the information architecture (navigation schemes and naming conventions), the layout or the pages (wireframes or page schematics are created to show consistent placement of items including functional features), and the conceptual design with branding. All websites should begin with a clear strategy so that it is apparent what they are trying to achieve. The strategy then enables the design to fullfill defined goals. Such elements as text, forms, images (GIFs, JPEGs, Portable Network Graphics) and video can be placed on the page using HTML/XHTML/XML tags. Older browsers may require Plug-ins such as Adobe Flash, QuickTime, Java run-time environment, etc. to display some media, which are embedded into web page by using HTML/XHTML tags. Improvements in browsers' compliance with W3C standards prompted a widespread acceptance and usage of XHTML/XML in conjunction with Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) to position and manipulate web page elements and objects. Typically Web pages are classified as static or dynamic: * Static pages don’t change content and layout with every request unless a human (web master/programmer) manually updates the page. A simple HTML page is an example of static content. * Dynamic pages adapt their content and/or appearance depending on end-user’s input/interaction or changes in the computing environment (user, time, database modifications, etc.) Content can be changed on the client side (end-user's computer) by using client-side scripting languages (JavaScript, JScript, Actionscript, etc.) to alter DOM elements (DHTML). Dynamic content is often compiled on the server utilizing server-side scripting languages (Perl, PHP, ASP, JSP, ColdFusion, etc.). Both approaches are usually used in complex applications. With growing specialization in the information technology field there is a strong tendency to distinguish between web design and Web development. Web design is a kind of graphic design intended for the development and styling of objects of the Internet's information environment to provide them with high-end consumer features and aesthetic qualities. This definition separates Web design from web programming, emphasizing the functional features of a web site, as well as positioning web design as a kind of graphic design.[1] The process of designing web pages, web sites, web applications or multimedia for the Web may utilize multiple disciplines, such as animation, authoring, communication design, corporate identity, graphic design, human-computer interaction, information architecture, interaction design, marketing, photography, search engine optimization and typography. * Markup languages (such as HTML, XHTML and XML) * Style sheet languages (such as CSS and XSL) * Client-side scripting (such as JavaScript) * Server-side scripting (such as PHP and ASP) * Database technologies (such as MySQL and PostgreSQL) * Multimedia technologies (such as Flash and Silverlight) Web pages and websites can be static pages, or can be programmed to be dynamic pages that automatically adapt content or visual appearance depending on a variety of factors, such as input from the end-user, input from the Webmaster or changes in the computing environment (such as the site's associated database having been modified). To be accessible, Web pages and sites must conform to certain accessibility principles. These accessibility principles are known as the WCAG when talking about content. These can be grouped into the following main areas. * Use semantic markup that provides a meaningful structure to the document (i.e. Web page) * Semantic markup also refers to semantically organizing the web page structure and publishing web services description accordingly so that they can be recognized by other web services on different web pages. Standards for semantic Web are set by IEEE * Use a valid markup language that conforms to a published DTD or Schema * Provide text equivalents for any non-text components (e.g. images, multimedia) * Use hyperlinks that make sense when read out of context. (e.g. avoid "Click Here") Website accessibility is also changing as it is impacted by Content Management Systems that allow changes to be made to webpages without the need of obtaining web-based programming language knowledge. It is very important that several different components of Web development and interaction can work together in order for the Web to be accessible to people with disabilities. These components include: * content - the information in a Web page or Web application, including: o natural information such as text, images, and sounds o code or markup that defines structure, presentation, etc. * Web browsers, media players, and other "user agents" * assistive technology, in some cases - screen readers, alternative keyboards, switches, scanning software, etc. * users' knowledge, experiences, and in some cases, adaptive strategies using the Web * developers - designers, coders, authors, etc., including developers with disabilities and users who contribute content * authoring tools - software that creates Web sites * evaluation tools - Web accessibility evaluation tools, HTML validators, CSS validators, etc. Tim Berners-Lee published what is considered to be the first website in August 1991.[3] Berners-Lee was the first to combine Internet communication (which had been carrying email and the Usenet for decades) with hypertext (which had also been around for decades, but limited to browsing information stored on a single computer, such as interactive CD-ROM design). Websites are written in a markup language called HTML, and early versions of HTML were very basic, only giving a website's basic structure (headings and paragraphs), and the ability to link using hypertext. This was new and different from existing forms of communication - users could easily navigate to other pages by following hyperlinks from page to page. As the Web and Web design progressed, the markup language changed to become more complex and flexible, giving the ability to add objects like images and tables to a page. Features like tables, which were originally intended to be used to display tabular information, were soon subverted for use as invisible layout devices. With the advent of Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), table-based layout is commonly regarded as outdated. Database integration technologies such as server-side scripting and design standards like W3C further changed and enhanced the way the Web is made. As times change, websites are changing the code on the inside and visual design on the outside with ever-evolving programs and utilities. With the progression of the Web, tens of thousands of Web design companies have been established around the world to serve the growing demand for such work. As with much of the information technology industry, many Web design companies have been established in technology parks in the developing world as well as many Western design companies setting up offices in countries such as India, Romania, and Russia to take advantage of the relatively lower labor rates found in such countries. Firefox is a great browser! A computer repair technician is a person who repairs and maintains computers and servers. The technician's responsibilities may extend to include building or configuring new hardware, installing and updating software packages, and creating and maintaining computer networks. Computer repair technicians work in a variety of settings, encompassing both the public and private sectors. Because of the relative newness of the profession, institutions offer certificate and degree programs designed to prepare new technicians, but computer repairs are frequently performed by experienced and certified technicians who have little formal training in the field.[1] A repair technician might work in a corporate information technology department, a central service center, or a retail computer sales environment. A public sector technician might work in the military, national security or law enforcement communities, health or public safety field, or an educational institution. Despite the vast variety of work environments, all computer technicians perform similar physical and investigative processes, including technical support. Experienced technicians might specialize in fields such as data recovery, system administration, or information systems. Some technicians are self-employed or own a firm that provides services in a regional area. Some are subcontracted as freelancers or consultants. This type of technician ranges from hobbyists and enthusiasts that volunteer or make a little side money, to those who work professionally in the field. The repair of problems can range from a minor setting that is incorrect, to spyware, viruses, and as far as replacing hardware or an entire operating system. Some technicians provide on-site services usually at an hourly rate. Others can provide services off-site, where the client can drop off at the repair shop. Some have pickup and drop off services for convenience. Some may also take back old equipment for recycling (In the EU, this is required under WEEE rules). Computer networking or Data communications (Datacom) is the engineering discipline concerned with the communication between computer systems or devices. A computer network is any set of computers or devices connected to each other with the ability to exchange data.[1] Computer networking is sometimes considered a sub-discipline of telecommunications, computer science, information technology and/or computer engineering since it relies heavily upon the theoretical and practical application of these scientific and engineering disciplines. The three types of networks are: the Internet, the intranet, and the extranet. Examples of different network methods are: * Local area network (LAN), which is usually a small network constrained to a small geographic area. An example of a LAN would be a computer network within a building. * Metropolitan area network (MAN), which is used for medium size area. examples for a city or a state. * Wide area network (WAN) that is usually a larger network that covers a large geographic area. * Wireless LANs and WANs (WLAN & WWAN) are the wireless equivalent of the LAN and WAN. All networks are interconnected to allow communication with a variety of different kinds of media, including twisted-pair copper wire cable, coaxial cable, optical fiber, power lines and various wireless technologies.[2] The devices can be separated by a few meters (e.g. via Bluetooth) or nearly unlimited distances (e.g. via the interconnections of the Internet[3]). Networking, routers, routing protocols, and networking over the public Internet have their specifications defined in documents called RFCs. Views of networks Users and network administrators typically have different views of their networks. Users can share printers and some servers from a workgroup, which usually means they are in the same geographic location and are on the same LAN whereas a Network Administrator is responsible to keep that network, up and running. A community of interest has less of a connection of being in a local area, and should be thought of as a set of arbitrarily located users who share a set of servers , and possibly also communicate via peer-to-peer technologies. Network administrators can see networks from both physical and logical perspectives. The physical perspective involves geographic locations, physical cabling, and the network elements (e.g., routers, bridges and application layer gateways that interconnect the physical media. Logical networks, called, in the TCP/IP architecture, subnets, map onto one or more physical media. For example, a common practice in a campus of buildings is to make a set of LAN cables in each building appear to be a common subnet, using virtual LAN (VLAN) technology. Both users and administrators will be aware, to varying extents, of the trust and scope characteristics of a network. Again using TCP/IP architectural terminology, an intranet is a community of interest under private administration usually by an enterprise, and is only accessible by authorized users (e.g. employees).[5] Intranets do not have to be connected to the Internet, but generally have a limited connection. An extranet is an extension of an intranet that allows secure communications to users outside of the intranet (e.g. business partners, customers).[5] Unofficially, the Internet is the set of users, enterprises, and content providers that are interconnected by Internet Service Providers (ISP). From an engineering viewpoint, the Internet is the set of subnets, and aggregates of subnets, which share the registered IP address space and exchange information about the reachability of those IP addresses using the Border Gateway Protocol. Typically, the human-readable names of servers are translated to IP addresses, transparently to users, via the directory function of the Domain Name System (DNS). Over the Internet, there can be business-to-business (B2B), business-to-consumer (B2C) and consumer-to-consumer (C2C) communications. Especially when money or sensitive information is exchanged, the communications are apt to be secured by some form of communications security mechanism. Intranets and extranets can be securely superimposed onto the Internet, without any access by general Internet users, using secure Virtual Private Network (VPN) technology. When used for gaming one computer will need to be the server while the others play through it. History of computer networks Before the advent of computer networks that were based upon some type of telecommunications system, communication between calculation machines and early computers was performed by human users by carrying instructions between them. Many of the social behaviors seen in today's Internet were demonstrably present in the nineteenth century and arguably in even earlier networks using visual signals. In September 1940 George Stibitz used a teletype machine to send instructions for a problem set from his Model at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire to his Complex Number Calculator in New York and received results back by the same means. Linking output systems like teletypes to computers was an interest at the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) when, in 1962, J.C.R. Licklider was hired and developed a working group he called the "Intergalactic Network"Bold text, a precursor to the ARPANet. In 1964, researchers at Dartmouth developed the Dartmouth Time Sharing System for distributed users of large computer systems. The same year, at MIT, a research group supported by General Electric and Bell Labs used a computer DEC's to route and manage telephone connections. Throughout the 1960s Leonard Kleinrock, Paul Baran and Donald Davies independently conceptualized and developed network systems which used datagrams or packets that could be used in a network between computer systems. 1965 Thomas Merrill and Lawrence G. Roberts created the first wide area network (WAN). The first widely used PSTN switch that used true computer control was the Western Electric introduced in 1965. In 1969 the University of California at Los Angeles, SRI (in Stanford), University of California at Santa Barbara, and the University of Utah were connected as the beginning of the ARPANET network using 50 kbit/s circuits. Commercial services using X.25 were deployed in 1972, and later used as an underlying infrastructure for expanding TCP/IP networks. Computer networks, and the technologies needed to connect and communicate through and between them, continue to drive computer hardware, software, and peripherals industries. This expansion is mirrored by growth in the numbers and types of users of networks from the researcher to the home user. Today, computer networks are the core of modern communication. All modern aspects of the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) are computer- controlled, and telephony increasingly runs over the Internet Protocol, although not necessarily the public Internet. The scope of communication has increased significantly in the past decade, and this boom in communications would not have been possible without the progressively advancing computer network. Networking methods One way to categorize computer networks is by their geographic scope, although many real-world networks interconnect Local Area Networks (LAN) via Wide Area Networks (WAN) and wireless wide area networks (WWAN). These three (broad) types are: Local area network (LAN) A local area network is a network that spans a relatively small space and provides services to a small number of people. A peer-to-peer or client-server method of networking may be used. A peer-to-peer network is where each client shares their resources with other workstations in the network. Examples of peer-to-peer networks are: Small office networks where resource use is minimal and a home network. A client- server network is where every client is connected to the server and each other. Client-server networks use servers in different capacities. These can be classified into two types: 1. Single-service servers 2. Print servers The server performs one task such as file server, while other servers can not only perform in the capacity of file servers and print servers, but also can conduct calculations and use them to provide information to clients (Web/Intranet Server). Computers may be connected in many different ways, including Ethernet cables, Wireless networks, or other types of wires such as power lines or phone lines. The ITU-T G.hn standard is an example of a technology that provides high-speed (up to 1 Gbit/s) local area networking over existing home wiring (power lines, phone lines and coaxial cables). Wide area network (WAN) A wide area network is a network where a wide variety of resources are deployed across a large domestic area or internationally. An example of this is a multinational business that uses a WAN to interconnect their offices in different countries. The largest and best example of a WAN is the Internet, which is a network composed of many smaller networks. The Internet is considered the largest network in the world.[6] The PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) also is an extremely large network that is converging to use Internet technologies, although not necessarily through the public Internet. A Wide Area Network involves communication through the use of a wide range of different technologies. These technologies include Point-to-Point WANs such as Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) and High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC), Frame Relay, ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) and Sonet (Synchronous Optical Network). The difference between the WAN technologies is based on the switching capabilities they perform and the speed at which sending and receiving bits of information (data) occur. Wireless networks (WLAN, WWAN) A wireless network is basically the same as a LAN or a WAN but there are no wires between hosts and servers. The data is transferred over sets of radio transceivers. These types of networks are beneficial when it is too costly or inconvenient to run the necessary cables. For more information, see Wireless LAN and Wireless wide area network. The media access protocols for LANs come from the IEEE. The most common IEEE 802.11 WLANs cover, depending on antennas, ranges from hundreds of meters to a few kilometers. For larger areas, either communications satellites of various types, cellular radio, or wireless local loop (IEEE 802.16) all have advantages and disadvantages. Depending on the type of mobility needed, the relevant standards may come from the IETF or the ITU. Network topology The network topology defines the way in which computers, printers, and other devices are connected, physically and logically. A network topology describes the layout of the wire and devices as well as the paths used by data transmissions. Network topology has two types: * Physical * Logical Commonly used topologies include: * Bus * Star * Tree (hierarchical) * Linear * Ring * Mesh o partially connected o fully connected (sometimes known as fully redundant) The network topologies mentioned above are only a general representation of the kinds of topologies used in computer network and are considered basic topologies See also Book:Computer Networking Books are collections of articles that can be downloaded or ordered in print. * Data transmission * Digital communications * Communication network * Network architecture * Data interventions References 1. ^ http://www.atis.org/tg2k/_computer_network.html Computer network definition 2. ^ http://www.bellevuelinux.org/network.html Computer networks defined. 3. ^ Interplanetary Internet, 2000 Third Annual International Symposium on Advanced Radio Technologies, A. Hooke,September 2000 4. ^ The Internet Standards Process -- Revision 3, RFC 2026, rushawn o wright, October 1996. 5. ^ a b RFC 2547 6. ^ http://www.pcmag.com/encyclopedia_term/0,2542,t=internet&j=54184,00.asp "internet" defined * Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Computer Networks (ISBN 0-13-349945-6). * Important publications in computer networks * Vinton G. Cerf "Software: Global Infrastructure for the 21st Century" * Meyers, Mike, "Mike Meyers' Certifcation Passport: Network+" ISBN 0072253487" * Odom, Wendall, "CCNA Certification Guide" * Network Communication Architecture and Protocols: OSI Network Architecture 7 Layers Model. External links * Easy Network Concepts (Linux kernel specific) * Computer Networks and Protocol (Research document, 2006) * Computer Networking Glossary * Networking at the Open Directory Project Love you, Wikipedia! Washington county, Benton county, we cover these counties. New computer setup is great! Also, this originated from Wikipedia in February of 2010: Web design is a broad term used to encompass the way that content (usually hypertext or hypermedia) is delivered to an end-user through the World Wide Web, using a web browser or other web-enabled software is displayed. The intent of web design is to create a website—a collection of online content including documents and applications that reside on a web server/servers. A website may include text, images, sounds and other content, and may be interactive. Contents [hide] * 1 Overview * 2 Content * 3 Accessible web design * 4 History * 5 Website planning o 5.1 Context o 5.2 Purpose o 5.3 Audience o 5.4 Compatibility and restrictions o 5.5 Planning documentation * 6 Website design o 6.1 Multidisciplinary requirements o 6.2 Environment o 6.3 Collaboration o 6.4 Form versus function o 6.5 Layout + 6.5.1 Layout types + 6.5.2 Layout concerns o 6.6 Device o 6.7 Tableless web design * 7 Content Management * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links [edit] Overview Web design involves the structure of the website including the information architecture (navigation schemes and naming conventions), the layout or the pages (wireframes or page schematics are created to show consistent placement of items including functional features), and the conceptual design with branding. [edit] Content Such elements as text, forms, images (GIFs, JPEGs, Portable Network Graphics) and video can be placed on the page using HTML/XHTML/XML tags. Older browsers may require Plug-ins such as Adobe Flash, QuickTime, Java run-time environment, etc. to display some media, which are embedded into web page by using HTML/XHTML tags. Improvements in browsers' compliance with W3C standards prompted a widespread acceptance and usage of XHTML/XML in conjunction with Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) to position and manipulate web page elements and objects. Typically web pages are classified as static or dynamic: * Static pages don’t change content and layout with every request unless a human (web master/programmer) manually updates the page. A simple HTML page is an example of static content. * Dynamic pages adapt their content and/or appearance depending on end-user’s input/interaction or changes in the computing environment (user, time, database modifications, etc.) Content can be changed on the client side (end-user's computer) by using client-side scripting languages (JavaScript, JScript, Actionscript, etc.) to alter DOM elements (DHTML). Dynamic content is often compiled on the server utilizing server-side scripting languages (Perl, PHP, ASP, JSP, ColdFusion, etc.). Both approaches are usually used in complex applications. With growing specialization in the information technology field there is a strong tendency to distinguish between web design and web development. Web design is a kind of graphic design intended for the development and styling of objects of the Internet's information environment to provide them with high-end consumer features and aesthetic qualities. This definition separates web design from web programming, emphasizing the functional features of a web site, as well as positioning web design as a kind of graphic design.[1] The process of designing web pages, web sites, web applications or multimedia for the Web may utilize multiple disciplines, such as animation, authoring, communication design, corporate identity, graphic design, human-computer interaction, information architecture, interaction design, marketing, photography, search engine optimization and typography. * Markup languages (such as HTML, XHTML and XML) * Style sheet languages (such as CSS and XSL) * Client-side scripting (such as JavaScript) * Server-side scripting (such as PHP and ASP) * Database technologies (such as MySQL and PostgreSQL) * Multimedia technologies (such as Flash and Silverlight) Web pages and websites can be static pages, or can be programmed to be dynamic pages that automatically adapt content or visual appearance depending on a variety of factors, such as input from the end-user, input from the webmaster or changes in the computing environment (such as the site's associated database having been modified). [edit] Accessible web design Main article: Web accessibility To be accessible, web pages and sites must conform to certain accessibility principles. These accessibility principles are known as the WCAG when talking about content. These can be grouped into the following main areas.[2] * Use semantic markup that provides a meaningful structure to the document (i.e. web page) * Semantic markup also refers to semantically organizing the web page structure and publishing web services description accordingly so that they can be recognized by other web services on different web pages. Standards for semantic web are set by IEEE * Use a valid markup language that conforms to a published DTD or Schema * Provide text equivalents for any non-text components (e.g. images, multimedia) * Use hyperlinks that make sense when read out of context. (e.g. avoid "Click Here") Website accessibility is also changing as it is impacted by Content Management Systems that allow changes to be made to webpages without the need of obtaining web-based programming language knowledge. It is very important that several different components of web development and interaction can work together in order for the Web to be accessible to people with disabilities. These components include: * content - the information in a web page or web application, including: o natural information such as text, images, and sounds o code or markup that defines structure, presentation, etc. * Web browsers, media players, and other "user agents" * assistive technology, in some cases - screen readers, alternative keyboards, switches, scanning software, etc. * users' knowledge, experiences, and in some cases, adaptive strategies using the Web * developers - designers, coders, authors, etc., including developers with disabilities and users who contribute content * authoring tools - software that creates web sites * evaluation tools - web accessibility evaluation tools, HTML validators, CSS validators, etc. [edit] History Tim Berners-Lee published what is considered to be the first website in August 1991.[3] Berners-Lee was the first to combine Internet communication (which had been carrying email and the Usenet for decades) with hypertext (which had also been around for decades, but limited to browsing information stored on a single computer, such as interactive CD-ROM design). Websites are written in a markup language called HTML, and early versions of HTML were very basic, only giving a website's basic structure (headings and paragraphs), and the ability to link using hypertext. This was new and different from existing forms of communication - users could easily navigate to other pages by following hyperlinks from page to page. As the Web and web design progressed, the markup language changed to become more complex and flexible, giving the ability to add objects like images and tables to a page. Features like tables, which were originally intended to be used to display tabular information, were soon subverted for use as invisible layout devices. With the advent of Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), table-based layout is commonly regarded as outdated. Database integration technologies such as server-side scripting and design standards like W3C further changed and enhanced the way the Web is made. As times change, websites are changing the code on the inside and visual design on the outside with ever-evolving programs and utilities. With the progression of the Web, tens of thousands of web design companies have been established around the world to serve the growing demand for such work. As with much of the information technology industry, many web design companies have been established in technology parks in the developing world as well as many Western design companies setting up offices in countries such as India, Romania, and Russia to take advantage of the relatively lower labor rates found in such countries. [edit] Website planning Purposing web design is a complex, but essential ongoing activity. Before creating and uploading a website, it is important to take the time to plan exactly what is needed in the website. Thoroughly considering the audience or target market, as well as defining the purpose and deciding what content will be developed, are extremely important. [edit] Context Web design is similar (in a very simplistic way) to traditional print publishing. Every website is an information display container, just as a book; and every web page is like the page in a book. However, web design uses a framework based on digital code and display technology to construct and maintain an environment to distribute information in multiple formats. Taken to its fullest potential, web design is undoubtedly the most sophisticated and increasingly complex method to support communication in today's world. [edit] Purpose It is essential to define the purpose of the website as one of the first steps in the planning process. A purpose statement should show focus based on what the website will accomplish and what the users will get from it. A clearly defined purpose will help the rest of the planning process as the audience is identified and the content of the site is developed. Setting short and long term goals for the website will help make the purpose clear and plan for the future when expansion, modification, and improvement will take place. Measurable objectives should be identified to track the progress of the site and determine success. [edit] Audience Defining the audience is a key step in the website planning process. The audience is the group of people who are expected to visit your website – the market being targeted. These people will be viewing the website for a specific reason and it is important to know exactly what they are looking for when they visit the site. A clearly defined purpose or goal of the site as well as an understanding of what visitors want to do or feel when they come to your site will help to identify the target audience. Upon considering who is most likely to need or use the content, a list of characteristics common to the users such as: * Audience Characteristics * Information Preferences * Computer Specifications * Web Experience Taking into account the characteristics of the audience will allow an effective website to be created that will deliver the desired content to the target audience. [edit] Compatibility and restrictions Because of the market share of modern browsers (depending on your target market), the compatibility of your website with the viewers is restricted. For instance, a website that is designed for the majority of websurfers will be limited to the use of valid XHTML 1.0 Strict or older, Cascading Style Sheets Level 1, and 1024x768 display resolution. This is because Internet Explorer is not fully W3C standards compliant with the modularity of XHTML 1.1 and the majority of CSS beyond 1. A target market of more alternative browser (e.g. Firefox, Google Chrome, Safari and Opera) users allow for more W3C compliance and thus a greater range of options for a web designer. Another restriction on webpage design is the use of different image file formats. The majority of users can support GIF, JPEG, and PNG (with restrictions). Again Internet Explorer is the major restriction here, not fully supporting PNG's advanced transparency features, resulting in the GIF format still being the most widely used graphic file format for transparent images. Many website incompatibilities go unnoticed by the designer and unreported by the users. The only way to be certain a website will work on a particular platform is to test it on that platform. [edit] Planning documentation Documentation is used to visually plan the site while taking into account the purpose, audience and content, to design the site structure, content and interactions that are most suitable for the website. Documentation may be considered a prototype for the website – a model which allows the website layout to be reviewed, resulting in suggested changes, improvements and/or enhancements. This review process increases the likelihood of success of the website. The first step may involve information architecture in which the content is categorized and the information structure is formulated. The information structure is used to develop a document or visual diagram called a site map. This creates a visual of how the web pages or content will be interconnected, and may help in deciding what content will be placed on what pages. In addition to planning the structure, the layout and interface of individual pages may be planned using a storyboard. In the process of storyboarding, a record is made of the description, purpose and title of each page in the site, and they are linked together according to the most effective and logical diagram type. Depending on the number of pages required for the website, documentation methods may include using pieces of paper and drawing lines to connect them, or creating the storyboard using computer software. [edit] Website design Web design is different than traditional print publishing. Every website is an information display container, just as a book is a container; and every web page is like the page in a book. However the end size and shape of the web page is not known to the web designer, whereas the print designer will know exactly what size paper he will be printing on. [4] For the typical web sites, the basic aspects of design are: * The content: the substance, and information on the site should be relevant to the site and should target the area of the public that the website is concerned with. * The usability: the site should be user-friendly, with the interface and navigation simple and reliable. * The appearance: the graphics and text should include a single style that flows throughout, to show consistency. The style should be professional, appealing and relevant. * The structure: of the web site as a whole. A web site typically consists of text, images, animation and /or video. The first page of a web site is known as the Home page or Index Page. Some web sites use what is commonly called a Splash Page. Splash pages might include a welcome message, language or region selection, or disclaimer, however search engines, in general, favor web sites that don't do this which has caused these types of pages to fall out of favor. Each web page within a web site is a file which has its own URL. After each web page is created, they are typically linked together using a navigation menu composed of hyperlinks. Once a web site is completed, it must be published or uploaded in order to be viewable to the public over the internet. This may be done using an FTP client. [edit] Multidisciplinary requirements Web site design crosses multiple disciplines of multiple information systems, information technology, marketing, and communication design. The web site is an information system whose components are sometimes classified as front-end and back-end. The observable content (e.g. page layout, user interface, graphics, text, audio) is known as the front-end. The back-end comprises the organization and efficiency of the source code, invisible scripted functions, and the server-side components that process the output from the front-end. Depending on the size of a web development project, it may be carried out by a multi-skilled individual (sometimes called a web master), or a project manager may oversee collaborative design between group members with specialized skills. [edit] Environment Layout is a double edged sword: on the one hand, it is the expression of a framework that actively shapes the web designer. On the other hand, as the designer adapts that framework to projects, layout is the means of content delivery. Publishing a web engages communication throughout the production process as well as within the product created. Publication implies adaptation of culture and content standards. Web design incorporates multiple intersections between many layers of technical and social understanding, demanding creative direction, design element structure, and some form of social organization. Differing goals and methods resolve effectively in successful deployment of education, software and team management during the design process. However, many competing and evolving platforms and environments challenge acceptance, completion and continuity of every design product. [edit] Collaboration Early web design was less integrated with companies’ advertising campaigns, customer transactions, extranets, intranets and social networking. Web sites were seen largely as static online brochures or database connection points, disconnected from the broader scopes of a business or project. Many web sites are still disconnected from the broader project scope. As a result, many web sites are needlessly difficult to use, indirect in their way of communicating, and suffer from a 'disconnected' or ineffective bureaucratic information architecture. [edit] Form versus function A web developer may pay more attention to how a page looks while neglecting other copywriting and search engine optimization functions such as the readability of text, the ease of navigating the site, or how easily the visitors are going to find the site. As a result, the designers may end up in disputes where some want more decorative graphics at the expense of keyword-rich text, bullet lists, and text links. Assuming a false dichotomy that form and function are mutually exclusive overlooks the possibility of integrating multiple disciplines for a collaborative and synergistic solution. In many cases form follows function. Because some graphics serve communication purposes in addition to aesthetics, how well a site works may depend on the graphic design ideas as well as the professional writing considerations. When using a lot of graphics, or sending a lot of instructions to the end client computer, a web page may load slowly, often irritating the user. This has become less of a problem as the internet has evolved with high-speed internet and the use of vector graphics. However there is still an ongoing engineering challenge to increase bandwidth and an artistic challenge to minimize the amount of graphics and their file sizes. This challenge is compounded since increased bandwidth encourages more graphics with larger file sizes. [edit] Layout [edit] Layout types Layout refers to the dimensioning of content in a device display, and the delivery of media in a content related stream. Web design layouts result in visual content frameworks: these frameworks can be fixed, they can use units of measure that are relative, or they can provide fluid layout with proportional dimensions. The deployment flowchart (a useful tool on any design project) should address content layout. Many units of measure exist, but here are some popular dimension formats: * Pixel measure results in fixed or static content * Em measure results in proportional content that is relative to font-size * Percent measure results in fluid content that shrinks and grows to "fit" display windows Proportional, liquid and hybrid layout are also referred to as dynamic design. Hybrid layout incorporates any combination of fixed, proportional or fluid elements within (or pointing to) a single page. The hybrid web design framework is made possible by digital internet conventions generally prescribed by the W3C. If any layout does not appear as it should, it is very likely that it does not conform to standard design principles, or that those standards conflict with standard layout elements. Current knowledge of standards is essential to effective hybrid design. The earliest web pages used fixed layouts without exception. In many business pages fixed layouts are preferred today as they easily contain static tabled information. Fixed layout enforces device display convention, as viewers must set their display to at least a certain width to easily view content. This width can include display of corporate logos, cautions, advertisements and any other target content. Design frameworks for fixed layout may need to include coding for multiple display devices. Hybrid design maintains most static content control, but is adapted to textual publishing, and for readers, to conventional (printed) display. Hybrid layouts are generally easy on the eye and are found on most sites that distribute traditional images and text to readers. For some sites, hybrid design makes an otherwise cold text column appear warm and balanced. A good example of hybrid layout is Wordpress, where liquid design is now optional, and movie and auditory media is stretching the envelope. Fluid design is useful where content is delivered to an 'unknown device' population. Appropriate liquid code displays images, text and spaces proportional to display size. Someone with a handheld can see view and interact with the same content as someone using a large desktop monitor. However, scaling of content for a variety of devices has more recently evolved with modern web browsers, allowing users to see the same layout across all devices. [edit] Layout concerns This section is written like a personal reflection or essay and may require cleanup. Please help improve it by rewriting it in an encyclopedic style. (December 2009) With the coming of numerous monitor sizes, "fluid" web sites are becoming less common. The result is that fluid layouts look "old" because they were typically used more in the early days of the internet. In dealing with font layout, even expressed as ems, a static core cannot be escaped and often anchors most page content. However, as new standards are adopted by device manufacturers, viewers notice a wider spectrum of content and a greater interaction between and through content. For the World Wide Web Consortium drawing up tomorrows layout conventions, new media types and methods are increasingly in the mix. It is a true double axiom that 'content is all about layout', and 'layout is all about content'. We could say that layout is what designers squeeze into available technology — content is the culture manifested in the layout. "Space' is the envelope holding layout and content together. Space communicates style (layout appearance) to the target population. Understanding how to adapt space to this layout-content relationship is essential to web design. Every design's survivability depends on its sensitivity to emerging technology (within the cultures that its framework is servicing), and immediate acceptance depends on the layout or presentation of that content. On every page, no content is more susceptible to changes and variations in standards, than space. While the professional designer casually admits that 90% of design code is used to adapt space, most of his current work deploys spatial manipulations being used to actively reshape Internet communication. Conceptual barriers to adequate layout abound! Presently layout is challenged by conflicting convention that makes it impossible to fit liquid and hybrid layout to the bottom corners of a display. Simply put, display device manufactures use the top right and/or left corners to display content. For non-standard equipment, setting custom fixed layout to their device is still seen by some businesses as a means of increasing revenue, as they can sell a 'unique' display. This business approach, domainating the digital market at the end of the last century, is not so useful today. However, some would claim a decade behind schedule, CSS3 and HTML5 are finally taking the four penultimate display reference points seriously. A common misconception among designers is to assume their layout is liquid because initial space and text container widths are in percents. However, their 'liquid' framework, while adhering to focused conventions, failed to manage graphic content. A subsequent edit placing a large image on the page, destroys the page appearance. When managing a design framework, it is critical that layout address content, convention and user interaction. [edit] Device On the Web the designer has no control over several factors, including the size of the browser window, the web browser used, the input devices used (operating system, mouse, touch screen, voice command, text, teletype, cell phone, or other hand-held), and the size, design, and other characteristics of the fonts that users have available (installed) and enabled (preference) on their device. Unique manufacture and conflicting device contentions are further complicated by varying browser interpretations of the same content, and some content automatically can trigger browser changes. Web designers do well to study and become proficient at removing competitive device and software markup so that web pages display as they are coded to display. Eric Meyers, a well known educator and developer, is one of many resources who have spear-headed HTML reset coding. While they cannot yet leave one local environment to control another, web designers can adjust target environments to remove much common markup that alters or corrupts their web content. Because device manufacturers are highly protective of their patent markup, Meyers and others caution that reset remains experimental. [edit] Tableless web design Main article: Tableless web design When Netscape Navigator 4 dominated the browser market, the popular solution available for designers to lay out a web page was by using tables. Often even simple designs for a page would require dozens of tables nested in each other. Many web templates in Dreamweaver and other WYSIWYG editors still use this technique today. Navigator 4 didn't support CSS to a useful degree, so it simply wasn't used. After the browser wars subsided, and the dominant browsers such as Internet Explorer became more W3C compliant, designers started turning toward CSS as an alternate means of laying out their pages. CSS proponents say that tables should be used only for tabular data, not for layout. Using CSS instead of tables also returns HTML to a semantic markup, which helps bots and search engines understand what's going on in a web page. All modern web browsers support CSS with different degrees of limitations. However, one of the main points against CSS is that by relying on it exclusively, control is essentially relinquished as each browser has its own quirks which result in a slightly different page display. This is especially a problem as not every browser supports the same subset of CSS rules. There are the means to apply different styles depending on which browser and version are used but incorporating these exceptions makes maintaining the style sheets more difficult as there are styles in more than one place to update. For designers who are used to table-based layouts, developing web sites in CSS often becomes a matter of trying to replicate what can be done with tables, leading some to find CSS design rather cumbersome due to lack of familiarity. For example, at one time it was rather difficult to produce certain design elements, such as vertical positioning, and full-length footers in a design using absolute positions. With the abundance of CSS resources available online today, though, designing with reasonable adherence to standards involves little more than applying CSS 2.1 or CSS 3 to properly structured markup. These days most modern browsers have solved most of these quirks in CSS rendering and this has made many different CSS layouts possible. However, some people continue to use old browsers, and designers need to keep this in mind, and allow for graceful degrading of pages in older browsers. Most notable among these old browsers is Internet Explorer 6, which is viewed in the web design community as becoming the new Netscape Navigator 4 — a block that holds the World Wide Web back from converting to CSS design. However, the W3 Consortium has made CSS in combination with XHTML the standard for web design. [edit] Content Management Main article: Content management Many sites require frequent content changes and new content publishing at short notice. Content Management Systems (CMS) allow non-technical contributors to maintain and update site content without programing knowledge or special software tools. Typically content on the website is editable using a "What You See Is What You Get" (WYSIWYG) model. In addition to maintaining existing content, CMS administrators can upload images or videos, create pages, sections or categories, and add or edit menu structures. There are several options popular to current use. Web development: Web development is a broad term for the work involved in developing a web site for the Internet (World Wide Web) or an intranet (a private network). This can include web design, web content development, client liaison, client-side/server-side scripting, web server and network security configuration, and e-commerce development. However, among web professionals, "web development" usually refers to the main non-design aspects of building web sites: writing markup and coding. Web development can range from developing the simplest static single page of plain text to the most complex web-based internet applications, electronic businesses, or social network services. For larger organizations and businesses, web development teams can consist of hundreds of people (web developers). Smaller organizations may only require a single permanent or contracting webmaster, or secondary assignment to related job positions such as a graphic designer and/or information systems technician. Web development may be a collaborative effort between departments rather than the domain of a designated department. Contents [hide] * 1 Web development as an industry * 2 Typical Areas o 2.1 Client Side Coding o 2.2 Server Side Coding o 2.3 Client Side + Server Side o 2.4 Database Technology * 3 Security Considerations * 4 Timeline * 5 References * 6 See also [edit] Web development as an industry Since the mid-1990s, web development has been one of the fastest growing industries in the world. In 1995 there were fewer than 1,000 web development companies in the United States, but by 2005 there were over 30,000 such companies in the U.S. alone.[1][dubious – discuss] The growth of this industry is being pushed by large businesses wishing to sell products and services to their customers and to automate business workflow. In addition, cost of Web site development and hosting has dropped dramatically during this time. Instead of costing ten thousands of dollars, as was the case for early websites, one can now develop a simple web site for less than a thousand dollars, depending on the complexity and amount of content.[citation needed] Smaller Web site development companies are now able to make web design accessible to both smaller companies and individuals further fueling the growth of the web development industry. As far as web development tools and platforms are concerned, there are many systems available to the public free of charge to aid in development. A popular example is the LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP) stack, which is usually distributed free of charge. This fact alone has manifested into many people around the globe setting up new Web sites daily and thus contributing to increase in web development popularity. Another contributing factor has been the rise of easy to use WYSIWYG web development software, most prominently Adobe Dreamweaver, Netbeans, WebDev, or Microsoft Expression Studio, Adobe Flex. Using such software, virtually anyone can develop a Web page in a matter of minutes. Knowledge of HyperText Markup Language (HTML), or other programming languages is not required, but recommended for professional results. The next generation of web development tools uses the strong growth in LAMP, Java Platform, Enterprise Edition technologies and Microsoft .NET technologies to provide the Web as a way to run applications online. Web developers now help to deliver applications as Web services which were traditionally only available as applications on a desk based computer. Instead of running executable code on a local computer, users are interacting with online applications to create new content. This has created new methods in communication and allowed for many opportunities to decentralize information and media distribution. Users are now able to interact with applications from many locations, instead of being tied to a specific workstation for their application environment. Examples of dramatic transformation in communication and commerce led by web development include e-commerce. Online auction sites such as eBay have changed the way consumers consume and purchase goods and services. Online resellers such as Amazon.com and Buy.com (among many, many others) have transformed the shopping and bargain hunting experience for many consumers. Another good example of transformative communication led by web development is the blog. Web applications such as WordPress and Movable Type have created easily implemented blog environments for individual Web sites. Open source content management systems such as Joomla!, Drupal, XOOPS, and TYPO3 and enterprise content management systems such as Alfresco have extended web development into new modes of interaction and communication. In addition, web development has moved to a new phase of Internet communication. Computer web sites are no longer simply tools for work or commerce but used most for communication. Websites such as Facebook and Twitter provide users a platform to freely communicate. This new form of web communication is also changing e-commerce through the number of hits and online advertisement. [edit] Typical Areas Web Development can be split into many areas and a typical and basic web development hierarchy might consist of: [edit] Client Side Coding * Ajax Asynchronous JavaScript provides new methods of using JavaScript, and other languages to improve the user experience. * Flash Adobe Flash Player is an ubiquitous browser plugin ready for RIAs. Flex 2 is also deployed to the Flash Player (version 9+). * JavaScript Formally called ECMAScript, JavaScript is a ubiquitous client side platform for creating and delivering rich Web applications that can also run across a wide variety of devices. * Microsoft Silverlight Microsoft's browser plugin that enables animation, vector graphics and high-definition video playback, programmed using XAML and .NET programming languages. * REAL Studio Web Edition is a rapid application development environment for the web. The language is object oriented and is similar to both VB and Java. Applications are uniquely compiled to binary code. * HTML5 and CSS3 Latest HTML proposed standard combined with the latest proposed standard for CSS natively supports much of the client-side functionality provided by other frameworks such as Flash and Silverlight [edit] Server Side Coding * ASP (Microsoft proprietary) * CSP, Server-Side ANSI C * ColdFusion (Adobe proprietary, formerly Macromedia, formerly Allaire) * CGI and/or Perl (open source) * Groovy (programming language) Grails (framework) * Java, e.g. Java EE or WebObjects * Lotus Domino * PHP (open source) * Python, e.g. Django (web framework) (open source) * REAL Studio Web Edition * Ruby, e.g. Ruby on Rails (open source) * Smalltalk e.g. Seaside, AIDA/Web * SSJS Server-Side JavaScript, e.g. Aptana Jaxer, Mozilla Rhino * Websphere (IBM proprietary) * .NET (Microsoft proprietary) The World Wide Web has become a major delivery platform for web development a variety of complex and sophisticated enterprise applications in several domains. In addition to their inherent multifaceted functionality, these web applications exhibit complex behavior and place some unique demands on their usability, performance, security and ability to grow and evolve. However, a vast majority of these applications continue to be developed in an ad-hoc way, contributing to problems of usability, maintainability, quality and reliability.(1)(2) While web development can benefit from established practices from other related disciplines, it has certain distinguishing characteristics that demand special considerations. In recent years of web development there have been some developments towards addressing these problems and requirements. As an emerging discipline, web engineering actively promotes systematic, disciplined and quantifiable approaches towards successful development of high-quality, ubiquitously usable web-based systems and applications.(3)(4) In particular, web engineering focuses on the methodologies, techniques and tools that are the foundation of web application development and which support their design, development, evolution, and evaluation. Web application development has certain characteristics that make it different from traditional software, information system, or computer application development. Web engineering is multidisciplinary and encompasses contributions from diverse areas: systems analysis and design, software engineering, hypermedia/hypertext engineering, requirements engineering, human-computer interaction, user interface, information engineering, information indexing and retrieval, testing, modelling and simulation, project management, and graphic design and presentation. Web engineering is neither a clone, nor a subset of software engineering, although both involve programming and software development. While web engineering uses software engineering principles, web development encompasses new approaches, methodologies, tools, techniques, and guidelines to meet the unique requirements of web-based applications. [edit] Client Side + Server Side * Google Web Toolkit provides tools to create and maintain complex JavaScript front-end applications in Java. * Pyjamas is a tool and framework for developing Ajax applications and Rich Internet Applications in python. * Tersus is a platform for the development of rich web applications by visually defining user interface, client side behavior and server side processing. (open source) However lesser known languages like Ruby and Python are often paired with database servers other than MySQL (the M in LAMP). Below are example of other databases currently in wide use on the web. For instance some developers prefer a LAPR(Linux/Apache/PostgreSQL/Ruby on Rails) setup for development. [edit] Database Technology * Apache Derby * DB2 (IBM proprietary) * Firebird * Microsoft SQL Server * MySQL * Oracle * PostgreSQL * SQLite * Sybase In practice, many web developers will also have interdisciplinary skills / roles, including: * Graphic design / web design * Information architecture and copywriting/copyediting with web usability, accessibility and search engine optimization in mind * Project management, QA and other aspects common to IT development in general The above list is a simple website development hierarchy and can be extended to include all client side and server side aspects. It is still important to remember that web development is generally split up into client side coding, covering aspects such as the layout and design, and server side coding, which covers the website's functionality and back end systems. Looking at these items from an "umbrella approach", client side coding such as XHTML is executed and stored on a local client (in a web browser) whereas server side code is not available to a client and is executed on a web server which generates the appropriate XHTML which is then sent to the client. The nature of client side coding allows you to alter the HTML on a local client and refresh the pages with updated content (locally), web designers must bear in mind the importance and relevance to security with their server side scripts. If a server side script accepts content from a locally modified client side script, the web development of that page is poorly sanitized with relation to security. [edit] Security Considerations Web development takes into account many security considerations, such as data entry error checking through forms, filtering output, and encryption.[2] Malicious practices such as SQL injection can be executed by users with ill intent yet with only primitive knowledge of web development as a whole. Scripts can be exploited to grant unauthorized access to malicious users trying to collect information such as email addresses, passwords and protected content like credit card numbers. Some of this is dependent on the server environment (most commonly Apache or Microsoft IIS) on which the scripting language, such as PHP, Ruby, Python, Perl or ASP is running, and therefore is not necessarily down to the web developer themselves to maintain. However, stringent testing of web applications before public release is encouraged to prevent such exploits from occurring. Keeping a web server safe from intrusion is often called Server Port Hardening. Many technologies come into play when keeping information on the internet safe when it is transmitted from one location to another. For instance Secure Socket Layer Encryption (SSL) Certificates are issued by certificate authorities to help prevent internet fraud. Many developers often employ different forms of encryption when transmitting and storing sensitive information. A basic understanding of information technology security concerns is often part of a web developer's knowledge. Because new security holes are found in web applications even after testing and launch, security patch updates are frequent for widely used applications. It is often the job of web developers to keep applications up to date as security patches are released and new security concerns are discovered. [edit] Timeline Web development timeline.png [edit] References 1. ^ Kiran, Charles. "The Web Development Industry Is Expected To Grow Over 20 By 2010". Articler. http://www.articler.com/23205/The-Web-Development-Industry-Is-Expected-To-Grow-Over-20-By-2010.html. 2. ^ "Web Application Security". DocForge. 22 February 2010. http://docforge.com/wiki/Web_application/Security. Retrieved 17 December 2008. 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